Transforms functions of arity N into a chain of N unary functions

This feature is experimental!

This API is still experimental, so it may change or be removed in future versions. You should not rely on it for production applications.


curry(arity, fn)
(Number, (Any...) => 'a) => Any... => 'a or ((Any...) => 'a)


Transforms functions of arity N into a chain of N unary functions


const curry = require('folktale/core/lambda/curry');

const property = curry(2, (key, object) => object[key]);
const people = [
  { name: 'Alissa', age: 26 },
  { name: 'Max',    age: 19 },
  { name: 'Talib',  age: 28 }
// ==> ['Alissa', 'Max', 'Talib']

What is "Currying"?

Currying is the process of transforming a function that takes N arguments all at once, into a series of functions that take one argument at a time. This makes it possible to construct new funcionality by specialising part of the arguments.

For example, the property function takes two arguments: the object that contains the property, and the name of the property to retrieve:

const property = (object, key) => object[key];

Because of this, every time someone call property they must provide both arguments:

property({ greeting: 'Hi' }, 'greeting');
// ==> 'Hi'

Some of the time, you only have some of the arguments, however. For example, if you wanted to create a function that always gets the greeting of a particular object, you would have to do so manually:

const greeting = (object) => property(object, 'greeting');

greeting({ greeting: 'Hi' });
// ==> 'Hi'

Currying alleviates the need for constructing these functions manually. If property was curried, you'd be able to create a new greeting function by just specifying some of the arguments, like you would do when invoking the function:

const property2 = (key) => (object) => object[key];
const greeting2 = property2('greeting');

greeting({ greeting: 'Hi' });

Note that the way we use arguments in a curried function is slightly different. When designing a function to be curried, you should consider which parameters are most likely to be fixed, and which parameters will be provided afterwards. In this case, it's much more likely for someone to have the name of a property than it is for them to have the object in which that property lives:

const score = [{ type: 'win' }, { type: 'draw' }];'type'));
// ==> ['win', 'draw']

Why Use Currying?

Functional programming places a heavy emphasis on function composition, but sometimes we have functions that don't exactly fit the places we want to use them. For example, expects a function that takes three arguments:

type =
  Array<'element> . (
    ('element, index is Number, Array<'element>) => 'newElement
  ) => Array<'newElement>

That is, given an array of of some element type, our callback, which receives not only this element, but also the index of that element in the array, and even the original array, is supposed to return a newElement to put in the old element's place.

We can use to easily transform the data in the array by some function. To expand a bit on the initial example, suppose we have an array of people:

const people = [
  { name: 'Alissa', age: 26, pronoun: 'she'  },
  { name: 'Max',    age: 19, pronoun: 'they' },
  { name: 'Talib',  age: 28, pronoun: 'he'   }

And then you want to get the name of one of those people. We can use for this:, index, array) =>;
// ==> ['Alissa', 'Max', 'Talib']

Because functions in JavaScript are variadic, you don't need to create a function with three parameters here. The following code is strictly equivalent: =>;
// ==> ['Alissa', 'Max', 'Talib']

This is all well and good, because this is the only place where we use this kind of functionality. But what if we have very similar functionality in more places. For example, just like we got the names of these people, we could get their ages: => person.age);
// ==> [26, 19, 28]

Or the pronoun they use: => person.pronoun);
// ==> ['she', 'they', 'he']

At this point, we're duplicating this functionality in many places. It would be more productive to move it to a function we can reuse. And this is easy enough:

const property = (object, key) => object[key];

But this attempt is not really a good one in this case. Now composing things is even more trouble: => property(person, 'name'));

Ideally, we'd want:;

But property takes two arguments, and can only provide one of them: the object we should retrieve the property from. Where do we get the other one from? Well, the name of the property is static. We know exactly what we need from the callsite.

As said in the previous section, thinking about which arguments are likely to be specified, and what aren't is important when designing curried functions. For this case, we want to specialise the key, and leave object to be provided by some other piece of code:

 const property = (key) => (object) => object[key];'name'));
 // ==> ['Alissa', 'Max', 'Talib']'age'));
 // ==> [26, 19, 28]'pronoun'));
 // ==> ['she', 'they', 'he'] 

So, with currying, it becomes much simpler to shape a function so it fits the expectations of the place where you want to use it. It alleviates the need of making this translation manually, but it also requires some prior thought on how these functions are likely to be used.

How Folktale's curry Works?

The curry operation makes it simpler to construct curried functions that work well with JavaScript, where functions may, and often do, take more than one argument.

Consider the following example:

const joinedBy = (separator) => (list) => (item) =>
  list.concat([separator, item]);

It's a curried function that takes 3 arguments, one at a time. To invoke it one must do so like this:

// ==> ['a', ',', 'b']

This makes it harder to use it for functions that pass two arguments to their callbacks, like Array.prototype.reduce, because JavaScript passes them all at once:

['b'].reduce(joinedBy(','), ['a']);
// ==> [<function>, <function>]

This is where curry helps. It allows you to curry functions, while unrolling application of more than one argument:

const curry = require('folktale/core/lambda/curry');

const joinedBy2 = curry(3, (separator, list, item) =>
  list.concat([separator, item]) 

joinedBy2(',', ['a'], 'b');
// ==> ['a', ',', 'b']

['b'].reduce(joinedBy2(','), ['a']);
// ==> ['a', ',', 'b']

curry, Under The Hood

How can curry construct functions that support such different styles of passing arguments? The secret is in how curry does unrolling. A function constructed by curry takes two arguments:

  1. The number of arguments that are expected for that function (arity);
  2. The function that should be called when those arguments are collected.

In return, curry gives you back a function that, at first, only collects arguments. That is, until we reach the amount of arguments expected (arity), applying the curryed function gives you back a new function that you continue to apply:

const curry = require('folktale/core/lambda/curry');

const f = curry(4, (a, b, c, d) => [a, b, c, d]);

// Previous arguments: []
const f1 = f();
// New arguments:      []

// Previous arguments: []
const f2 = f1(1);
// New arguments:      [1]

// Previous arguments: [1]
const f3 = f2(2, 3);
// New arguments:      [1, 2, 3]

// Previous arguments: [1, 2, 3]
// ==> [1, 2, 3, 4]

The curried function keeps track of these arguments in an internal array. This array is not modified when you apply a curried function. Instead, you get a new function with a separate "internal arguments array":

// Previous arguments: [1]
const f2_a = f2(4);  // => [1, 4]
const f2_b = f2(5);  // => [1, 5]

f2_a(5, 6); // ==> [1, 4, 5, 6]
f2_b(5, 6); // ==> [1, 5, 5, 6]

Once the curried function has collected all of the arguments it needs to, it "unrolls" the application. That is, it provides the arguments collected to the original function:

const plus  = (a, b, c) => a + b + c;
const plus2 = curry(3, plus);

=== plus2(1, 2)(3)
=== plus2(1, 2, 3)
=== plus(1, 2, 3)
=== 1 + 2 + 3;

What happens if a curried function receives more arguments than it expects, though? If the wrapped function is a regular JavaScript function, it's the same. curry passes all of the arguments to it, and because JavaScript functions are variadic, those additional arguments get (usually) ignored:

    plus2(1)(2)(3, 4, 5)
=== plus2(1, 2)(3, 4, 5)
=== plus2(1, 2, 3, 4, 5)
=== plus(1, 2, 3, 4, 5)
=== 1 + 2 + 3;

If the wrapped function is itself a curried function, things get more interesting though, because the curried functio will, itself, unroll the rest of the application!

const subtract = curry(2, (x, y) => x - y);
const flip     = curry(3, (f, x, y) => f(y, x));

=== subtract(1, 2)
=== 1 - 2;

=== flip(subtract, 1)(2)
=== flip(subtract, 1, 2)
=== subtract(2, 1)
=== 2 - 1;

Unrolling makes it possible to compose curried functions naturally, without getting in the way of regular JavaScript functions.

Using curry for real variadic functions is strongly discouraged, given that it's hard to predict which arguments will end up being provided to the variadic function.

Drawbacks of Using curry

While curry certainly helps composing functions, it's important to note that, because a lot of functions in JavaScript are variadic, and because people take advantage of this (by relying on the number of arguments provided for optional parameters or overloading the signature), composition of such functions is not well-defined, and curry makes things even less predictable for these cases.

Because of this, the use of curry for variadic functions is strongly discouraged.

One also must consider the overhead of introducing curry in a codebase. For most code, this overhead is negligible, but curry should be avoided in code paths that require more performance.


Source Code

Defined in source/core/lambda/curry.js at line 18, column 0
(arity, fn) => {
  const curried = (oldArgs) => (...newArgs) => {
    const allArgs  = oldArgs.concat(newArgs);
    const argCount = allArgs.length;

    return argCount < arity   ?  curried(allArgs)
    :      /* otherwise */       fn(...allArgs);

  return curried([]);
(c) 2013-2017 Quildreen Motta, and CONTRIBUTORS
  • Quildreen Motta
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